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Banu Umayya: The Rise and Fall of the First Islamic Dynasty
Banu Umayya, also known as the Umayyad dynasty, was the first caliphate to rule over the Muslim world after the death of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). The Umayyads were a clan of Quraysh, the tribe of the Prophet, and they traced their ancestry to Umayya ibn Abd Shams, a distant relative of the Prophet. The Umayyads ruled from 661 to 750 CE, and they expanded the Islamic empire to its largest extent, reaching from Spain to India. They also established Damascus as their capital and built many monuments and mosques, such as the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem and the Great Mosque of Damascus.
However, the Umayyads also faced many challenges and controversies during their reign. They were opposed by many Muslims who considered them illegitimate rulers and usurpers of the caliphate. Some of these opponents were the supporters of Ali ibn Abi Talib, the cousin and son-in-law of the Prophet, who claimed to be his rightful successor. Ali was assassinated in 661 CE by a Kharijite, a radical sect that rejected both Ali and his rival Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan, the founder of the Umayyad dynasty. After Ali's death, Muawiya became the undisputed caliph and established his dynasty by appointing his son Yazid as his successor. This practice of hereditary succession was opposed by many Muslims who believed that the caliph should be chosen by consultation (shura) among the Muslims.
Another challenge faced by the Umayyads was their treatment of non-Arab Muslims, especially the Persians and the Berbers. The Umayyads favored the Arab Muslims over the non-Arab converts and imposed heavy taxes on them. They also discriminated against them in terms of political and social rights. This caused resentment and rebellion among many non-Arab Muslims who felt oppressed and marginalized by the Umayyad regime. Some of these rebels were inspired by religious movements that challenged the Umayyad authority and legitimacy. One of these movements was Shiism, which emerged as a distinct sect that followed Ali and his descendants as the rightful leaders of the Muslim community. Another movement was Kharijism, which advocated a puritanical and egalitarian interpretation of Islam that rejected any form of authority or hierarchy.
The Umayyad dynasty came to an end in 750 CE when it was overthrown by a revolt led by Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah, a descendant of Abbas, the uncle of the Prophet. Abu al-Abbas claimed to be a representative of the Alids, the family of Ali, and he gained support from many Shiites, Kharijites, Persians, Berbers, and other dissatisfied groups. He defeated the last Umayyad caliph Marwan II at the Battle of Zab in Iraq and established a new caliphate known as the Abbasid dynasty. The Abbasids moved their capital from Damascus to Baghdad and ushered in a new era of Islamic civilization that was more diverse, tolerant, and cultured than the Umayyad era.
The history of Banu Umayya is a fascinating and complex one that reflects the diversity and dynamism of Islam in its early centuries. The Umayyads were both praised and criticized by different Muslim groups for their achievements and failures. They left behind a legacy that influenced Islamic history and culture for centuries to come.
If you want to learn more about Banu Umayya history in Urdu language, you can download a PDF book titled Sadat-e-Banu Umayya ØªØÚØÛ ØØØØØª ØÙÙ ØÙ ÛÛ by Qazi Muhammad Suliman Salman from this link[^1^]. You can also read an online article titled Banu Umayya History In Urdu Pdf Download 37 by Inquanpobestmi from this link[^2^]. aa16f39245